Anyone who "valued his reputation for scientific sanity" would never dare support such a theory, said a British geologist.
Causes for the French Revolution 1. Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France. So the French treasury was empty.
LouisXVI helped the thirteen American colonies to gain theirindependence from the common enemy, Britain. To meet its regular expenses, such as the cost of maintainingan army, the court, running government offices or universities, the ruler was forced to increase taxes.
Social causes or Division in the French Society French society in the eighteenth century was divided into three estates- Clergy, Nobility and Common People. Clergy and Nobility enjoyed many privileges based on birth. The church collected taxes from people.
They were exempted from paying taxes. Nobles collected feudal dues from III Estate people. Peasants were obliged to render services to the Clergy and Nobility to work in their houses, fields, servein the army or to participate in building roads. Economic causes or The Struggle to Survive The population of France rose from 23 million to 28 million in This led to a rapid increase in the demand forfood grains.
Production of grains was less because drought or hail reduced the harvest. Most workers were employed as labourers in workshops.
Owners of the workshopsdid not increase the wages of workers. Growth of Middle Class and influence from USA The eighteenth century witnessed the emergence of social groups, termed the middle class, who earned their wealth through trade and professions.
They were influenced by declaration of independence of the USA.
They were also influenced by fundamental rights given to the citizens of the USA. All of these were educated and believed that no group in society should be privileged by birth They also believed that French society should be based on freedom, equality and equal opportunities for all.
Montesquieu in his bookThe Spirit of the Laws,proposed a division of power within the government betweenthe legislative, the executive and the judiciary. The ideas of these philosophers were discussed intensively in salons and coffee-houses and spread among people through books andnewspapers.
The news thatLouis XVI planned to impose further taxes generated anger and protest against the ruler and system. The Estates General was a political body to which the three estates sent their representatives.
The first and second estates sent representatives each and III estate sent representatives. III estate representatives demanded individual voting right but king refused to grant so they walked out. On 20 June they assembled in the hallof an indoor tennis court in the grounds of Versailles and declaredthemselves a National Assembly and swore not to disperse till theyhad drafted a constitution for France that would limit the powers ofthe monarch.
After spending hours in longqueues at the bakery, crowds of angry women stormed into theshops and looted the stock. At the same time, the king ordered troops to move into Paris. People of Paris organized a militia and broke many buildings in search of weapons.
On 14 July, the agitated crowd stormed and destroyed the Bastille. A large number of nobles were killed and many fled to other countries. On the night of 4 Augustthe Assembly passed adecree law abolishing the feudal taxes, privileges of Nobles and Clergy, Tithes and confiscation of church properties.
The National Assembly completed the draft of the constitution in Its main object was to limit the powers of the monarch. These powers were separated and assigned to different institutions-the legislature, executive and judiciary. This made France a constitutional monarchy.
The Constitution of vested the power of making laws to theNational Assembly, which was indirectly elected by active citizens. Active citizens, who were above 25 years of age and paying taxes worth of 3 days wages of a worker were given voting right. They voted for a group of electors, who in turn chose the members of the National Assembly.
Rights such as the right to life, freedom of speech,freedom of opinion, equality before law, were established asnatural and inalienable rights.Years of feudal oppression and fiscal mismanagement contributed to a French society that was ripe for revolt.
Noting a downward economic spiral in the late s, King Louis XVI brought in a number of financial advisors to review the weakened French treasury. The main objective of this course is to improve the student’s ability to analyze, interpret, and critique literature.
Further, students learn and perfect the skill of writing an interpretive essay. French Revolution: Influence, Causes and Course of the Revolution! The Influence of the French Revolution: The French Revolution of is an important landmark in the history of Europe.
It was the first great uprising of the people against the autocracy of the ruler. ADVERTISEMENTS: It generated ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity which . Welcome to HCC online tutoring!
Our goal is to provide free, confidential, and convenient academic support to HCC students in an online environment. Communism, political and economic doctrine that aims to replace private property and a profit-based economy with public ownership and communal control of at least the major means of production (e.g., mines, mills, and factories) and the natural resources of a society.
Communism is thus a form of socialism—a higher and more advanced form, according to its advocates. We begin this course with an introduction to the French Revolution.
We will examine the social and institutional structures of the Old Regime. We will look at the main occupational groups and the roles of the First and Second estates (the clergy and nobility) in particular.