Admissions There are many reasons you should consider a career in physical therapy. Whether the patient's problem is a result of injury or disease, the physical therapist is a rehabilitation specialist who fosters the patient's return to maximal function. Physical therapists also will work with individuals to prevent loss of mobility by developing fitness- and wellness-oriented programs for healthier and more active lifestyles.
In this article Applies To: The principle is simple, and the impact of applying it correctly greatly increases your security and reduces your risk. The principle states that all users should log on with a user account that has the absolute minimum permissions necessary to complete the current task and nothing more.
Doing so provides protection against malicious code, among other attacks. This principle applies to computers and the users of those computers. For example, you must determine the access privileges that a computer or user really needs, and then implement them.
For many organizations, this task might initially seem like a great deal of work; however, it is an essential step to successfully secure your network environment. For example, if an administrator logs on with a privileged account and inadvertently runs a virus program, the virus has administrative access to the local computer and to the entire domain.
If the administrator had instead logged on with a nonprivileged nonadministrative account, the virus's scope of damage would only be the local computer because it runs as a local computer user.
This tactic helps prevent widespread damage if an attacker manages to compromise one managed forest. Organizations should regularly audit their network to protect against unauthorized escalation of privilege.
If an application that has too many privileges should be compromised, the attacker might be able to expand the attack beyond what it would if the application had been under the least amount of privileges possible.
For example, examine the consequences of a network administrator unwittingly opening an email attachment that launches a virus. If the administrator is logged on using the domain Administrator account, the virus will have Administrator privileges on all computers in the domain and thus unrestricted access to nearly all data on the network.
If the administrator is logged on using a local Administrator account, the virus will have Administrator privileges on the local computer and thus would be able to access any data on the computer and install malicious software such as key-stroke logging software on the computer.
If the administrator is logged on using a normal user account, the virus will have access only to the administrator's data and will not be able to install malicious software.
By using the least privileges necessary to read email, in this example, the potential scope of the compromise is greatly reduced.
The size of the environment affects the raw numbers of overly privileged accounts, but not the proportionmidsized directories may have dozens of accounts in the most highly privileged groups, while large installations may have hundreds or even thousands.
With few exceptions, regardless of the sophistication of an attacker's skills and arsenal, attackers typically follow the path of least resistance. They increase the complexity of their tooling and approach only if and when simpler mechanisms fail or are thwarted by defenders.
Unfortunately, the path of least resistance in many environments has proven to be the overuse of accounts with broad and deep privilege.
Broad privileges are rights and permissions that allow an account to perform specific activities across a large cross-section of the environment- for example, Help Desk staff may be granted permissions that allow them to reset the passwords on many user accounts.
Deep privileges are powerful privileges that are applied to a narrow segment of the population, such giving an engineer Administrator rights on a server so that they can perform repairs.
Neither broad privilege nor deep privilege is necessarily dangerous, but when many accounts in the domain are permanently granted broad and deep privilege, if only one of the accounts is compromised, it can quickly be used to reconfigure the environment to the attacker's purposes or even to destroy large segments of the infrastructure.
Pass-the-hash attacks, which are a type of credential theft attack, are ubiquitous because the tooling to perform them is freely available and easy-to-use, and because many environments are vulnerable to the attacks.
Pass-the-hash attacks, however, are not the real problem. The crux of the problem is twofold: It is usually easy for an attacker to obtain deep privilege on a single computer and then propagate that privilege broadly to other computers.
There are usually too many permanent accounts with high levels of privilege across the computing landscape.
Even if pass-the-hash attacks are eliminated, attackers would simply use different tactics, not a different strategy. Rather than planting malware that contains credential theft tooling, they might plant malware that logs keystrokes, or leverage any number of other approaches to capture credentials that are powerful across the environment.
Regardless of the tactics, the targets remain the same: Granting of excessive privilege isn't only found in Active Directory in compromised environments. When an organization has developed the habit of granting more privilege than is required, it is typically found throughout the infrastructure as discussed in the following sections.An increasing amount of physical-security systems are IP-enabled, offering a way to merge with existing networks, or at least establish a separate IP network.
2. Network security is a complicated subject, historically only tackled by well-trained and experienced experts. However, as more and more people become ``wired'', an increasing number of people need to understand the basics of security in a networked world.
Physical security can be summarized as protective measures that are meant to ensure the safety of people, resources, and other important assets, from physical threats. Here are the most common type of physical security threats: 1. Theft and Burglary.
Theft and burglary are a bundled deal because of how closely they are related. Operational Security Standard on Physical Security. In accordance with the Policy on Government Security and Appendix C of the Directive on Departmental Security Management, this standard provides baseline physical security requirements to counter threats to government employees, assets and service delivery and to provide consistent safeguarding for the Government of Canada.
Now, with emigration and greater physical and social mobility, many of the world’s people find themselves in places far from home, living in communities defined not by common acquaintance, knowledge, and culture, but by geography or economics.
InfoSec Reading Room This paper is from the SANS Institute Reading Room site. Reposting is not permitted without express written permission.
Physical Security and Why It Is Important of physical security is to ensure that all personnel is safe. The second is to secure company assets.