See Article History Alternative Titles: He succeeded to the baronetcy inand he was raised to the peerage in In his widowed mother married Lord Leveson, the future Lord Granville and Liberal foreign secretary, an alliance that brought Acton early into the intimate circle of the great Whigs.
Biography[ edit ] Collingwood was born 22 February in CartmelGrange-over-Sandsin Lancashirethe son of the artist and archaeologist W.
Collingwoodwho had acted as John Ruskin 's private secretary in the final years of Ruskin's life. Collingwood's mother was also an artist and a talented pianist. He was taught by the historian and archaeologist F.
Metaphysical naturalism, also called "ontological naturalism" and "philosophical naturalism", is a philosophical worldview and belief system that holds that there is nothing but natural elements, principles, and relations of the kind studied by the natural sciences, i.e., those required to understand our physical environment by mathematical modeling. The Idea of History is the best-known work of the great Oxford philosopher, historian, and archaeologist R.G. Collingwood. It was originally published posthumously in , having been mainly reconstructed from Collingwood's manuscripts, many of which are now lost. An Essay on Philosophical Method. Revised Edition. R. G. Collingwood Edited by James Connelly and Giuseppina D'Oro. A Clarendon Press Publication. .
Haverfieldat the time Camden Professor of Ancient History. After several years of increasingly debilitating strokes Collingwood died at ConistonLancashire, on 9 January He was a practising Anglican throughout his life.
Philosopher[ edit ] Philosophy of history[ edit ] Collingwood is widely noted for The Idea of Historywhich was collated from various sources soon after his death by a student, T.
It came to be a major inspiration for philosophy of history in the English-speaking world and is extensively cited, leading to an ironic remark by commentator Louis Mink that Collingwood is coming to be "the best known neglected thinker of our time".
He suggested that a historian must "reconstruct" history by using "historical imagination" to "re-enact" the thought processes of historical persons based on information and evidence from historical sources.
Collingwood pointed out a fundamental difference between knowing things in the present or in the natural sciences and knowing history. To come to know things in the present or about things in the natural sciences, "real" things can be observed, as they are in existence or that have substance right now.
Philosophy of art[ edit ] The Principles of Art comprises Collingwood's most developed treatment of aesthetic questions. Collingwood held following Croce that works of art are essentially expressions of emotion. For Collingwood, an important social role for artists is to clarify and articulate emotions from their community.
Collingwood developed a position later known as aesthetic expressivisma thesis first developed by Benedetto Croce. The essence of this conception is He was, during his time, a leading authority on Roman Britain: He began work along Hadrian's Wall. The family home was at Coniston in the Lake District and his father was a leading figure in the Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological Society.
Collingwood was drawn in on a number of excavations and put forward the theory that Hadrian's Wall was not so much a fighting platform but an elevated sentry walk.
He was very active in the Wall Pilgrimage for which he prepared the ninth edition of Bruce 's Handbook. His final and most controversial excavation in Cumbria was that of a circular ring ditch near Penrith known as King Arthur's Round Table henge in It appeared to be a Neolithic henge monument, and Collingwood's excavations, failing to find conclusive evidence of Neolithic activity, nevertheless found the base of two stone pillars, a possible cremation trench and some post holes.
Sadly, his subsequent ill health prevented him undertaking a second season so the work was handed over to the German prehistorian Gerhard Bersuwho queried some of Collingwood's findings.
However, recently, Grace Simpson, the daughter of the excavator F. Simpson, has queried Bersu's work and largely rehabilitated Collingwood as an excavator. It was finally published in by his student R. He also published two major archaeological works. The first, somewhat surprisingly for a philosopher was The Archaeology of Roman Britain, a handbook in sixteen chapters covering first the archaeological sites fortresses, towns and temples and portable antiquities inscriptions, coins, pottery and brooches.
Mortimer Wheeler in a review,  remarked that "it seemed at first a trifle off beat that he should immerse himself in so much museum-like detail… but I felt sure that this was incidental to his primary mission to organise his own thinking".An Essay on Philosophical Method.
Revised Edition. R. G. Collingwood Edited by James Connelly and Giuseppina D'Oro. A Clarendon Press Publication. . Alternative Titles: John Emerich Edward Dalberg Acton, 1st Baron Acton of Aldenham, 8th Baronet His parliamentary career had ended in —he was an almost silent member—but he was an influential adviser and friend to William Gladstone, the Liberal leader and prime minister.
Acton was raised to.
Metaphysical naturalism, also called "ontological naturalism" and "philosophical naturalism", is a philosophical worldview and belief system that holds that there is nothing but natural elements, principles, and relations of the kind studied by the natural sciences, i.e., those required to understand our physical environment by mathematical modeling.
An Essay on Philosophical Method contains the most sustained discussion in the twentieth century of the subject matter and method of philosophy and an unparalleled explanation of why philosophy has a distinctive domain of enquiry that differs from that of the sciences of nature.
R.G. Collingwood, An Essay on Philosophical Method, New Edition, with an Introduction and additional material edited by James Connelly and Giuseppina D'Oro, Oxford University Press, , pp, $ (hbk), ISBN Online Library of Liberty.
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