Symptoms are generally mild and include fever, rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise or headache. Symptoms typically last for 2—7 days. Most people with Zika virus infection do not develop symptoms. Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause infants to be born with microcephaly and other congenital malformations, known as congenital Zika syndrome.
Where can I get more information? GBS can range from a very mild case with brief weakness to nearly devastating paralysis, leaving the person unable to breathe independently.
In October , reports indicating a possible association between Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) | Article from MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report October 20, Nov 19, · In a study published in Neurology, French researchers found the development of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) may follow recent surgery, particularly surgery pertaining to . Department of Neurosurgery, Nanchong Central Hospital (The Second Clinical College of North Sichuan Medical College), Nanchong, Sichuan, China. Background: Inconsistent results of the association between fish consumption and stroke risk have been indicated in previous epidemiological studies.
Fortunately, most people eventually recover from even the most severe cases of GBS. After recovery, some people will continue to have some degree of weakness. It can strike at any age although it is more frequent in adults and older people and both sexes are equally prone to the disorder.
GBS is estimated to affect about one person ineach year. The exact cause of GBS is not known. It is not contagious or inherited.
What they do know is that the affected person's immune system begins to attack the body itself. It is thought that, at least in some cases, this immune attack is initiated to fight an infection and that some chemicals on infecting bacteria and viruses resemble those on nerve cells, which, in turn, also become targets of attack.
Normally the immune system uses antibodies molecules produced in an immune response and special white blood cells to protect us by attacking infecting microorganisms bacteria and viruses.
Most cases usually start a few days or weeks following a respiratory or gastrointestinal viral infection. Occasionally surgery will trigger the syndrome. In rare cases vaccinations may increase the risk of GBS. Recently, some countries worldwide reported an increased incidence of GBS following infection with the Zika virus.
Unexplained sensations often occur first, such as tingling in the feet or hands, or even pain especially in childrenoften starting in the legs or back.
Children will also show symptoms with difficulty walking and may refuse to walk. These sensations tend to disappear before the major, longer-term symptoms appear. Weakness on both sides of the body is the major symptom that prompts most people to seek medical attention.
The weakness may first appear as difficulty climbing stairs or with walking. Symptoms often affect the arms, breathing muscles, and even the face, reflecting more widespread nerve damage. Occasionally symptoms start in the upper body and move down to the legs and feet.
Most people reach the greatest stage of weakness within the first two weeks after symptoms appear; by the third week 90 percent of affected individuals are at their weakest.
In addition to muscle weakness, symptoms may include: These symptoms can increase in intensity over a period of hours, days, or weeks until certain muscles cannot be used at all and, when severe, the person is almost totally paralyzed. In these cases, the disorder is life-threatening—potentially interfering with breathing and, at times, with blood pressure or heart rate.
There is a central conducting core in the nerves called the axon that carries an electric signal. The axon an extension of a nerve cell is surrounded by a covering, like insulation, called myelin.
The myelin sheath surrounding the axon speeds up the transmission of nerve signals and allows the transmission of signals over long distances. Weakness When we move, for example, an electric signal from the brain travels through and out of the spinal cord to peripheral nerves along muscles of the legs, arms, and elsewhere—called motor nerves.
In most cases of GBS, the immune system damages the myelin sheath that surrounds the axons of many peripheral nerves; however, it also may also damage the axons themselves. As a result, the nerves cannot transmit signals efficiently and the muscles begin to lose their ability to respond to the brain's commands.
The weakness seen in GBS usually comes on quickly and worsens over hours or days. Symptoms are usually equal on both sides of the body called symmetric.
In addition to weak limbs, muscles controlling breathing can weaken to the point that the person must be attached to a machine to help support breathing. Sensation changes Since nerves are damaged in GBS, the brain may receive abnormal sensory signals from the rest of the body.
This results in unexplained, spontaneous sensations, called paresthesias, that may be experienced as tingling, a sense of insects crawling under the skin called formicationsand pain. Various ideas have been proposed to explain how GBS develops. According to this explanation, molecules on some nerves are very similar to or mimic molecules on some microorganisms.Schonberger LB, Bregman DJ, Sullivan-Bolyai JZ, et al.
Guillain-Barre syndrome following vaccination in the National Influenza Immunization Program, United States, Am J Epidemiol ; A Clinical Trial of Entinostat in Combination With Nivolumab for Patients With Previously Treated Unresectable or Metastatic Cholangiocarcinoma and Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.
considered to be of autoimmune origin (e.g., Guillian-Barre Syndrome, Myasthenia Gravis, Multiple Sclerosis). United States, Contact: .
In October , reports indicating a possible association between Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) | Article from MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report October 20, The estimated annual incidence in the United States is to per , persons.
Guillain-Barré syndrome is believed to result from an aberrant immune response that attacks nerve tissue. Home Medicine Diseases and Conditions Pathology Guillain-Barre Syndrome Select Source: Print this article; Print all entries for this topic; Cite this article; In the United States, the syndrome is rare.
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Jul 26, · In research studies, the outcome from an episode of Guillain–Barré syndrome is recorded on a scale from 0 to 6, where 0 denotes completely healthy, 1 very minor symptoms but able to run, 2 able to walk but not to run, 3 requiring a stick or other support, 4 confined to bed or chair, 5 requiring long-term respiratory support, 6 death.